In Germany the addition of TiO2 nanoparticles in food or food packaging is not allowed. But small amounts of TiO2 can pass via an accidental ingestion of sunscreen in the gastro-intestinal tract.


Usually, such particles are excreted via the stool. So far, only few analyses on this topic exist.

In vitro studies with human intestinal cells showed that high doses (20 and 80 μg/cm2) on TiO2 cause after 24 h of incubation, significant membrane damage, leading to a loss of vitality and may induce toxicity. After 4 h, the cells, however, showed no reactions. TiO2 particles in this study caused no DNA strand breaks or oxidative DNA damage. When different versions of TiO2 with different surfaces were used, so surface dependent effects could not be found. The authors conclude from their in vitro studies on intestinal cells (as a model for a healthy intestine) that ingestion of TiO2 particles poses no risk [1].



  1. Gerloff, K et al. (2009) Nanotoxicology 3(4): 355-364.


Cookies make it easier for us to provide you with our services. With the usage of our services you permit us to use cookies.