There are no epidemiological studies on the effects of nanoscale titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles available at present. Comprehensive titanium dioxide studies carried out in the recent years have shown, however, that there is no increased risk of lung cancer for workers employed in the titanium dioxide industry.


The studies conducted so far have not indicated any increased risk for people employed in production to incur lung cancer or other types of cancer. The death rate was not increased either [1,2].

Workplace exposure studies within the project NanoCare have shown that particles released during TiO2 powder filling mostly are larger than 450 nm and, thus, are not considered nanoparticles [3].

Life cycle and possible paths of titanium dioxide release. © Kuhlbusch et al., UBA-Studie.Life cycle and possible paths of titanium dioxide release. © Kuhlbusch et al., UBA-Studie.



  1. Ellis, ED et al. (2010), J Occup Environ Med, 52(3): 303-309.
  2. Wild, P et al. (2009)."Lung Cancer and Exposure to Metals: The Epidemiological Evidence", in Cancer Epidemiology. vol. 472, Verma, Humana Press, pp. 139-167. ISBN:978-1-60327-491-3
  3. NanoCare 2009, Final Scientific Report, ISBN 978-3-89746-108-6. (PDF-Document, 19 MB).
  4. Kuhlbusch, T. (Oct 2010). Emissionen von Nanopartikeln aus ausgewählten Produkten in ihrem Lebenszyklus. UBA-Studie, Umweltbundesamt, ISSN 1862-4804.


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