Iron and Iron Oxides – Exposure

So far there are no epidemiologic data available on iron and iron oxides.

Iron and iron oxides are natural components of the earth's crust. Iron oxides are extracted from iron ore and can then be converted to iron. Both iron and iron oxides are used in numerous applications both in nanoscale and in larger form. Therefore, there are different ways of release into the environment.

Studies on several cell culture systems have shown that superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (so-called SPION) are tolerated very well by the cells and hardly cause any negative effects.

Since iron oxide particles are mainly intended for medical use (for example, for use as contrast agents in tumor therapy) and are directly injected into the body, the doses administered must not cause toxicity.


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