Glossary

Term Main definition
Life Cycle Assessment

Short LCA. Systematic analysis of the environmental impacts of products throughout the life cycle ("cradle-to-grave").

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Synonyms - LCA, life cycle assessment
lipophilic

Greek lipos - fat and philia - love: fat-loving, having an affinity to fat and high lipid solubility.

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lipophobic

Greek lipos - fat and phobos - fear: avoiding fat, having a low affinity to fat and a high affinity to water.

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Liposome

Derived from the Greek terms lípos = fat and sōma = body; synonyms are lipid vesicles or fat globules. They can be found naturally in cells or synthetically produced as spherical structures (diameters from 25 nanometers to 1 micron). They function as drug carriers which in turn are selectively enriched in distinct organs and cell complexes.

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Synonyms - Liposomes, liposomes
LOEL

Short for Lowest observed effect level.

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Lysosome

Small organells sorrounded by a membrane. The main function is to digest and to disrupt foreign material or body's own substances by the enzymes contained in them.

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Macrophage

Greek makros - large and phagein - eat. Big eaters, cells of the immune system, serve to eliminate microorganisms or particles by phagocytosis; especially in areas of inflammation.

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Synonyms - Macrophages, scavenger cells
MBBT

MBBT structural formulaMBBT structural formulachem. Methylene-bis-Benzotriazolyltetramethylbutylphenol, is a yellowish organic solid and practically insoluble in water. The nanomaterial has been approved as a broadband UV filter in cosmetic products in the EU since 2000. It forms a protective film on the upper skin layer and scatters, reflects and absorbs the UV rays of the sun, especially UV-A radiation.

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Microinjection

Describes a transfection method where microscopically small substances such as antibodies, organelles or DNA are injected in very small amounts in a single cell using a very fine glass micropipette. This procedure is normally performed using a specialised microscope setup, a so-called "micro-manipulator".

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Micron

The term "micro" comes from the Greek word mikrós = small. Abbreviation = µm. 1 µm is one thousandth of a millimeter or one millionth of a meter, or 1/1.000,000 or 1/1 million m.

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Synonyms - micrometer, µm
Modelling

Is the simulation of different processes (biochemical processes in cells, material flows of nanoparticles in ecosystems) using especially developed computer programs. By changing relevant parameters of a process, modelling allows predictions and saves laborious experiments.

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Synonyms - exposure modelling
MTT assay

Abbreviation for the dye compound 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromidefor. Measuring the functionality of animal and human cells. Colorimetric assay for measuring the activity of enzymes that reduce MTT or close dyes.

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Mucociliary clearance

Describes the self-cleaning mechanism of the bronchi during which mucus and other materials are removed from the airways by the cilia of the epithelial cells.

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Mutagenicity

Describes the capacity of certain chemicals or high energy radiation to cause changes in the genetic material (DNA), known as mutations.

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Synonyms - mutagenic
Nanoemulsion

Latin ex and mulgēre - milked out (milk is a well-known emulsion). Finely distributed mixture of two normally immiscible liquids (e.g. water and oil) with no visible segregation. If the droplets are nanoscale, this is called a nanoemulsion.

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Synonyms - nano emulsion, nanoemulsions, emulsion, nano emulsions

 

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