Glossary

Term Main definition
hydrophilic

Greek hydor - water and philia - love: water-loving. Describing the character of a molecule, a substance or a surface, which has an affinity to water.

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hydrophobic

Greek hydros - water and phobos - fear: water repelling. Describing the character of a molecule, a substance or a surface, which has a low affinity to water.

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Hyperthermia

is the targeted overheating of tumor tissue (> 40°C), usually by means of electromagnetic waves, in order to kill the surrounding tumor cells.

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in silico

Latin in silicio - in Silicium. Means the simulation of biological and biochemical processes using computer programs.

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in vitro

“In the test tube”, from the Latin vitrum – glass, referring to reactions outside the organism, sometimes under participation of autologous physiological conditions.

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in vivo

From the Latin vivus – alive, characterising reactions or processes that take place in the living organism under physiological conditions.

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Inflammation

Typical response of animal tissues to potentially damaging stimuli e.g. by physical stimuli (pressure), chemical stimuli (heat or cold), or by micro-organisms (viruses, bacteria), with the function to remove this stimulus and to prevent its spread. Some technical nanoparticles are suspected to cause inflammations because of their bacteria- and virus-like particle shape, e.g. by inhalation of very high Titaniumdioxid concentrations in the lung.

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Synonyms - inflammatory
Instillation

Administration of (particle-)suspensions into visceral cavities or hollow organs (e.g. nose, throat) of an organism.

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intravenous

describes the direct administration of a drug, liquid solution or suspension into a venous blood vessel.

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Synonyms - intravenously
Isoelectric point

Abbreviation IEP, also pI or point of zero charge, is an important parameter for assessing the behaviour of nanoparticles in aqueous surroundings. The IEP is the pH of an aqueous suspension, where the positive and negative charges on the particle surfaces are balanced. The IEP for each particle type is individually different and an important material parameter to assess the stability of particles in suspension.

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Synonyms - IEP
landfilling

dedicated use of land for disposing waste in an engineered facility.

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Synonyms - landfill, landfills
Lavage

French, from latin lavare - to wash. Medical procedure. Irrigation or washing out of a hollow organ or cavity such as the stomach, intestine or the lung.

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LC50

Short for lethal concentration, concentration of a substance leading to the death of 50% of the exposed organisms.

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LD50

Short for lethal dose. Concentration of a substance that leads to death of 50% of the organisms exposed to it.

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leachate

in landfills, leachate is produced by the infiltrating rain that seeps through the waste. Leachate contains extracted solutes, suspended solids and any other component of the material that are transferred from the solid phase to the liquid phase.

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