Glossary

Term Main definition
Endosome

Greek endo - inside und soma - body, are vesicles of animal and plant cells that are formed during endocytosis. They belong to the organelles of the cell.

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Synonyms - endosomal
endothelial cells

The tissue which forms a single layer of cells lining various organs and cavities of the body, especially the blood vessels, heart, and lymphatic vessels.

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Synonyms - endothel, endothelial
Epidemiology

Derived from the Greek terms epi - upon, among; demos - people, district; logos - study. "The study of what is upon the people". Scientific studies are dealing with the reasons, impacts and extension of health related substances in populations. Epidemiological studies show impacts of toxic substances on the human population, often unintended by incident.

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Synonyms - epidemiologically
epithelial cells

The thin tissue forming the outer layer of a body's surface and lining the alimentary canal and other hollow structures.

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ex vivo

Latin: "out of the living", procedures or processes, in which living biological material, in particular cells, tissues or organs taken from a living organism and cultured outside of that. This will allow treatment and analysis of the material under controlled conditions.

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Exogenous

Describes processes having an external cause or origin.

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Exposure

Means to expose an object to a particular influence: In the case of nanomaterials, in particular, the contact of humans, animals or the environment with the possibility of incorporating nanomaterials. Both the quantity and the period of ingestion are of concern. For more information, see Basics - How do you get in contact with nanomaterials? .

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Fluorescence

is the property of a material to emit light of a certain wavelength after it has been irradiated with light of another wavelength (usually of higher energy).

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Synonyms - fluorescent, fluoresce
Free Radicals

Atoms or molecules that contain one or several unpaired electrons and, in that sense, are „free“. Correspondingly, any free radical has an electron that stands alone. Many free radicals are highly reactive, meaning that they have a strong tendency to arrange in pairs and, thus, escape the instable unpaired condition. For pairing, free radicals randomly receive electrons from a suitable donor or donate electrons to an appropriate acceptor, which converts into secondary free radicals. Such chain reactions may cause biological damage.

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GBS

Abbreviation for granular biopersistent particles, dust particles without a known intrinsic toxicity. This includes all dust particles (in the micro- as well as in the nanometer scale), which 1. can be inhaled, 2. exhibit no systemic toxic effects and 3. which are not or only poorly degradable by the human body.

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Genotoxicity

Genotoxic effects are damages to the genetic material of organisms (DNA). They can lead to mutations or increase the error rate in the doubling of DNA at each cell division. Genotoxicity is therefore not necessarily associated with mutagenicity.

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Synonyms - genotoxic
Hardness

Describes the resistance of a solid material against penetration of another solid body. It is determined by means of scratching (Mohs hardness number in geology) or by indentation methods (materials science) which differ with respect to the indenter and the load regime (Vickers, Rockwell, Knoop, Berkovich). They deliver different hardness figures.

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Synonyms - Mohs hardness, Vickers hardness
hemolysis

is the rupture or destruction of red blood cells and release of cellular contents (e.g. hemoglobin) into the plasma.

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Histopathology

Science concerned with the study of microscopic changes in diseased tissues.

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humic acids

are natural organic constituents of humus, soil, peat and coal. The group of different acids is formed by partial degradation of remains of dead organisms in the soil.

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Synonyms - humic substances, humic acid, humic substance

 

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