Term Main definition

Greek for bios - life and Latin for accumulare - pile up, accumulate; is the accumulation of a substance in an organism by absorption from the surrounding medium (e.g. water in fish) and through food.

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Refers to the rate and extent to which a substance is absorbed unchanged from the environment or the gastrointestinal tract into the body. The amount taken up does not necessarily correspond to the amount present in food or in the environment of a living organism.

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Greek for bios - life and compatible; substances having no negative impact on living organisms or tissues, behave neutrally in the body and do not cause allergic or toxic (poisonous) reactions. Particularly relevant for implants (e.g. made of diamond, zirconium dioxide, titanium) that are located over a long period in direct contact with an organism.

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Synonyms - biocompatible

Greek for bios - life and Latin magnificare - increase; is the accumulation of a substance in an organism, only taking the dietary intake into account.

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Molecules or structures acting as indicators for environmental stress or disease, for example in medicine or biology. Characteristic biological features that can be objectively measured and indicate a normal biological or pathological process in the body.

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bottom-up method

Literal meaning „from bottom to top“. Production process starting from small units (from atoms, for example, in nanotechology).

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Or buckyball, these are other terms for the carbon compounds described under fullerenes. They are derived from the name of Buckminster Fuller, the ”inventor“ of the fullerene structures.

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Synonyms - Fullerenes, Fullerene, Buckyball

A substance, an organism or a radiation that causes or promotes cancer.

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Cell Penetration Capacity

The property of nanomaterials to penetrate cell walls or membranes due to their small size.

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Denotes a slowly occurring or long-lasting effect (e.g. toxic effects occurring only after long exposure time or a protracted inflammation).

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In medicine, it is a measurement of the excretion ability of certain organs like the kidneys or the liver. It corresponds to the calculated plasma volume per unit of time [ml/min], which was cleared of a particular substance.

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describes a complex model system for the simultaneous cultivation of different cell types which mimics the interaction of the cell types in the natural environment (organs, body). A well-known example for this are lung models that consist of lung epithelial cells, macrophages, endothelial cells and further immunocompetent cells as these are present in the lung as well.

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Synonyms - Co-cultivation, Coculture

Is a covering that is applied as a thin film to the surface of an object, e.g. nanoparticles. Coatings are applied to improve surface properties of the nanoparticles, such as solubility, adhesion, wetability, and corrosion resistance, and to reduce dissolution of ions. Frequently used coatings in nanotechnology include polymers, lipids (medical applications) or metals (catalysts).

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Synonyms - coated

Very small solid particles (typically smaller than 10 µm) suspended in a solvent. Compared with solids in suspensions, solids in a colloid do not precipitate, i.e. do not sink to the bottom of a vessel. In liquids, colloids are recognized by clouding and/or the so-called Tyndall effect.

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Synonyms - colloidal

Collective term for measures related to volume, e.g. g/ml, kg/l, g/cm3. Due to their high surface/volume ratio, for nanoparticles instead of mass-related, surface-related concentration ranges, e.g. cm2/ml is frequently used.

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