Glossary

Term Main definition
Subacute

Refers to a course or effect, which is located between acute and chronic, e.g. a less intense course, in time neither fast nor slow running.

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Surface charge

Is the electric charge present at the interface of the nanoparticle surface with a polar fluid such as water. The water contains positive and negative ions, which interact with the particle surface. If the number of adsorbed e.g. positive ions exceeds the number of negative ions, surface charge would be positive. Since direct measurement of the surface charge of particles measured is difficult, the zeta potential is calculated as a proxy for the surface charge.

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Surface defects

are gaps in an otherwise regular arrangement of atoms. These vacancies are responsible for exceptional properties of some nanomaterials such as high reactivity. In many cases, however, surface effects are undesirable and covered by surface coatings.

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Synonyms - surface defect
Surface modification

Are chemical changes on the surfaces of nanomaterials, which are commonly employed to impart certain improved properties to the surface of nanomaterials, e.g. improved solubility, resistance to UV light or scratch resistance.

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Synonyms - Surface modifications
Surfactant

Short for surface active agent. Its function is to lower the surface tension and to improve the solubility in aqueous solutions. As medical term it describes the thin liquid film lining the lung for stability reasons.

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Suspension

Solid particles suspended in a liquid, i.e. a more or less thick sludge or slurry. Normally, the solid particles deposit on the bottom if one allows the suspension to rest for a while in the vessel.

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Synonyms - suspended
systemic

"Concerning a system of organs" or "concerning the whole organism".

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TBPT

TBPT structural formulaTBPT structural formulachem. Tris-Biphenyl-Triazine, is a colorless organic solid and practically insoluble in water. The nanomaterial has been approved as a broadband UV filter in cosmetic products in the EU since August 2014. It forms a protective film on the upper skin layer and scatters, reflects and absorbs the UV rays of the sun, especially UV-B and UV-A radiation.

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TEM

Abbreviation for Transmission electron microscopy. A device to study smallest samples by shining electron beams through the object. To allow the electron beam to pass through the object, it has to be very thin.

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Tensile strength

Denotes in the science of strength of materials the maximum force per original cross-sectional area (stress) that a sample can tolerate before it breaks. It is determined by a tensile test https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tensile_testing.

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Tight Junctions

the biological term describes the extremely close connection of adjacent cells.

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Synonyms - tight junction
top-down-method

Literal meaning „from top to bottom“. Production process starting from large units and proceeding with comminution (for example, cutting or grinding).

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Toxicity

Refers to the hazardous potential of a substance. Hence, to develop adverse reactions in cells and living organisms, and to compromise functionality, which can lead to the death of an organism. It can be distinguished as direct and indirect toxicity. In the first case the toxicity of the substance is based on an interaction with the organism by directly intervening in metabolic processes or molecular structures. In contrast, a substance may also cause a change of physical factors in the environment (e.g. reduction of incidence of light on plants, blockage of molting in crustaceans). Often, indirect toxicity is also understood as an effect of substances emerging from a non-toxic substance, e.g. by degradation or alteration in the body.

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Synonyms - toxic, cytotoxic
Toxicology

Greek words τοξικός - toxicos - poisonous and logos - study of the adverse effects of poison

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Van-der-Waals-Forces

Weak non-covalent interactions between atoms and molecules.

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Synonyms - Van-der-Waals

 

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