Term Main definition

Acronym for Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. The mission of the organisation is to promote policies that will improve the economic and social well-being of people around the world.

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Refers to functional systems within a (eukaryotic) cell, which are enclosed by a lipid membrane, e.g. Mitochondria, chloroplasts, the nucleus, the Golgi apparatus, lysosomes or the endoplasmic reticulum.

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Synonyms - organelles,
Oxidative Stress

Results from an imbalance between the intracellular production of free radicals and the cellular defense mechanisms. The balance between oxidants and antioxidants may be disturbed by the increase in free radicals or the reduction of antioxidant substances. Oxidative stress may cause destructive biochemical reactions.

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particulate matter

Is divided into several subgroups according to particle size. PM10 covers all particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 micrometre and less followed by PM2.5 for all particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 2,5 micrometre and less and ultrafine particles with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 0,1 micrometre. In Europe, binding limit values for particulate matter fractions PM10 (daily limit value 50 μg / m³) and PM2.5 (daily limit value 25 μg / m³) ensure air quality and protection of human health.

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Synonyms - PM

Greek pathos - suffering and genesis - origin, a disease causing. All substances or organisms that can cause a disease are summarised as pathogens.

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Synonyms - pathogenic

Short for predicted environmental concentration, is a theoretical value giving an indication of the expected concentration of a material (e.g. nanoparticles) in the environment (exposure assessment). The calculation takes into account the amount initially present (or added to) the environment, its distribution in the different environmental compartments, and the probable rates of environmental degradation and removal, either forced or natural.

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Synonyms - predicted environmental concentration

Refers to a molecule that is composed of 2 or more amino acids linked by peptide bonds (chemical bond between carboxyl and amino group of two adjacent amino acids).

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In biology and environmental chemistry, the term “persistence” denotes the property of substances to persist in the environment over long periods of time while remaining unchanged by physical, chemical or biological processes.

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Latin pestis - plague and caedere - kill. Man-made chemical substances used to kill, displace or inhibit reproduction of organisms regarded as annoying or harmful. Generic term for all plant protection products and substances for pest control.

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Synonyms - Pesticides, plant protection product, pest control

Latin, short for pondus/potentia hydrogenii - weight/power of hydrogen. Dimensionless measure of the acidic or alkaline (basic) reaction of an aqueous solution. The pH of a nanoparticle suspension affects the behaviour of particles in the solution (agglomeration, solubility, suspensibility).

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Synonyms - pH-value

Greek phagein - to eat. Mechanism of uptake from particles to small cells in a single eukaryotic cell. Usually, particles are taken up by the cells as membrane-bound aggregates, i.e. large aggregates in vesicles, vacuoles or lamellar bodies (cell compartments surrounded by membranes) through phagocytosis. In mammals, phagocytosis is performed mainly by special cells of the immune system, including the macrophages, monocytes (precursor cells of macrophages), and neutrophils (or neutrophilic granulocytes, belonging to the white blood cells). This uptake is an active, regulated process.

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Photocatalytic activity

Ability of some nano materials (e.g. TiO2) to speed up a certain reaction ("photoreaction") as a catalyst in combination with light (sunlight, ultraviolet light). In the case of TiO2, for example, influenced by sunlight radicals (see also ROS) are formed, which decompose organic materials. This effect is used for self-cleaning surfaces.

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Synonyms - photocatalytic effect, photocatalytic action

Is the ingestion of liquid into a cell by the budding of small vesicles from the cell membrane.

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Short for predicted no effect concentration, predicted concentration of a hazardous substance in the environment, which shows no impact on the environment (effect assessment). If this concentration is thus below the PNEC, it should not have any negative effects. PNECs find application especially with PECs in the risk quotient in environmental risk assessment.

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Greek poly - more and méros - part, meaning "build from many parts", describes chemical  compounds that are composed from identical or similar units (so-called monomers). These units can be linked to either chains or branched molecules.

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Synonyms - polymers


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