Glossary

Term Main definition
Macrophage

Greek makros - large and phagein - eat. Big eaters, cells of the immune system, serve to eliminate microorganisms or particles by phagocytosis; especially in areas of inflammation.

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Synonyms - Macrophages, scavenger cells
MBBT

MBBT structural formulaMBBT structural formulachem. Methylene-bis-Benzotriazolyltetramethylbutylphenol, is a yellowish organic solid and practically insoluble in water. The nanomaterial has been approved as a broadband UV filter in cosmetic products in the EU since 2000. It forms a protective film on the upper skin layer and scatters, reflects and absorbs the UV rays of the sun, especially UV-A radiation.

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Microinjection

Describes a transfection method where microscopically small substances such as antibodies, organelles or DNA are injected in very small amounts in a single cell using a very fine glass micropipette. This procedure is normally performed using a specialised microscope setup, a so-called "micro-manipulator".

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Micron

The term "micro" comes from the Greek word mikrós = small. Abbreviation = µm. 1 µm is one thousandth of a millimeter or one millionth of a meter, or 1/1.000,000 or 1/1 million m.

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Synonyms - micrometer, µm
Modelling

Is the simulation of different processes (biochemical processes in cells, material flows of nanoparticles in ecosystems) using especially developed computer programs. By changing relevant parameters of a process, modelling allows predictions and saves laborious experiments.

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Synonyms - exposure modelling
MTT assay

Abbreviation for the dye compound 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromidefor. Measuring the functionality of animal and human cells. Colorimetric assay for measuring the activity of enzymes that reduce MTT or close dyes.

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Mucociliary clearance

Describes the self-cleaning mechanism of the bronchi during which mucus and other materials are removed from the airways by the cilia of the epithelial cells.

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Mutagenicity

Describes the capacity of certain chemicals or high energy radiation to cause changes in the genetic material (DNA), known as mutations.

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Synonyms - mutagenic

 

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