Term Main definition
in silico

Latin in silicio - in Silicium. Means the simulation of biological and biochemical processes using computer programs.

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in vitro

“In the test tube”, from the Latin vitrum – glass, referring to reactions outside the organism, sometimes under participation of autologous physiological conditions.

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in vivo

From the Latin vivus – alive, characterising reactions or processes that take place in the living organism under physiological conditions.

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Typical response of animal tissues to potentially damaging stimuli e.g. by physical stimuli (pressure), chemical stimuli (heat or cold), or by micro-organisms (viruses, bacteria), with the function to remove this stimulus and to prevent its spread. Some technical nanoparticles are suspected to cause inflammations because of their bacteria- and virus-like particle shape, e.g. by inhalation of very high Titaniumdioxid concentrations in the lung.

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Synonyms - inflammatory

Administration of (particle-)suspensions into visceral cavities or hollow organs (e.g. nose, throat) of an organism.

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describes the direct administration of a drug, liquid solution or suspension into a venous blood vessel.

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Synonyms - intravenously
Isoelectric point

Abbreviation IEP, also pI or point of zero charge, is an important parameter for assessing the behaviour of nanoparticles in aqueous surroundings. The IEP is the pH of an aqueous suspension, where the positive and negative charges on the particle surfaces are balanced. The IEP for each particle type is individually different and an important material parameter to assess the stability of particles in suspension.

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Synonyms - IEP


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